SP/DIF Digital Audio Connector - Sony-Philips Digital Interface
Originally a standard for transmitting digital signals stored on CDs, Philips and Sony were developed. Two types are used in practice: optical and coaxial format. The advantage of SP/DIF connectivity is that a single cable connects to the DAC, such as a CD player, digital set-top box, audio processor, computer or television. The SP/DIF standard, either coaxial or optical, can transmit a wide range of audio formats, from linear PCM signals, such as CDs, to Dolby Digital or DTS.
Toslink optical digital connector:
SP/DIF is a type of connector capable of transmitting a digital signal in optical form. The optical connector transmits the same SP/DIF signal as the coaxial version, but provides slightly lower sound quality. The reason for this is that since the internal signal processing of both the source and the receiving device is electronic, optical signal transmission requires first an electrical-optical conversion and then a reverse conversion on the receiving side. The use of optical signal transmission is an advantage when the signal needs to be transmitted over long distances (more than 4-5 meters). The different types of fiber optic cables usually differ only in mechanical design and do not affect sound quality.
Coaxial digital connector:
SP/DIF is a type of connector capable of transmitting a digital signal in electrical form. It uses a shielded wire and RCA connector, which is why it is called a coaxial* digital connector. Its marking is usually orange. Since the digital signal is capable of transmitting two-channel stereo or even multichannel surround sound, a single cable is enough to transmit the signal. In coaxial signal transmission, it does not matter what kind of cable is used. The design of the 75 Ohm coaxial cable affects electrical signal transmission, thus affecting sound quality.
* Coaxial cable:
The coaxial cable got its name from the fact that the so-called stocking vein, which also plays the role of external shielding, surrounds the blood vessel running inside.
The Universal Serial Bus (USB) is a very common computer connector nowadays, which was developed in 1994 by USB Implementers Forum, Inc., founded by leading computer companies. It has the advantage of providing full plug and play connectivity, support for all modern operating systems, and the same architecture on all systems. As of 2023, USB will consist of four specification generations: USB 1.''x'', USB 2.0, USB 3.''x'' and USB4. Since USB4, the specification improves data transfer and power functions. USB is designed to standardize the connection of peripherals to personal computers, both for electrical communication and for power supply. It has largely replaced interfaces such as serial ports and parallel ports, and has become common across a wide range of devices. Peripherals connected via USB include, for example, computer keyboards and mice, camcorders, printers, portable media players, mobile phones, Digital to Analog converters, etc.
Definitio Multimedia Interface - High definition multimedia interface
HDMI is the first widely supported multimedia signal transmission standard that allows you to transmit virtually any standard of uncompressed image, audio, and control signals in both directions with one cable. In addition to image transmission, it is suitable for simultaneous transmission of a multichannel digital audio signal on a single cable. More and more DACs have I2S digital connectors based on HDMI connectors and cables. The I2S connector achieves the maximum signal transmission rate and quality provided by the device.